How to live through the winter in a warm and safe way has always been a social concern. Recently, several villagers in Xinglong County, Chengde City, Hebei Province were suspected to have died of carbon monoxide poisoning after using clean coal promoted by the local government. Subsequently, in Tangshan City, Hebei Province, six villagers also died of carbon monoxide poisoning after using clean coal. Dozens more were taken to hospital for rescue and treatment …
What exactly caused the poisoning incident? Peng Yingdeng, a researcher at the National Urban Environmental Pollution Control Technology Research Center, said in an exclusive interview with a reporter from the Science and Technology Daily that compared to loose coal, clean coal emits fewer pollutants and is cleaner during use. However, the quality and supporting habits of supporting stoves are very important. Once improperly used, carbon monoxide poisoning will occur. “This is similar to the use of gas water heaters.”
Clear heating value and sulfur content
“Clean coal is also called clean coal product. It uses natural high-quality anthracite as raw material and is added with blue charcoal or additives. It has the characteristics of low ash, low sulfur, and volatile pollutants, and it is smokeless and tasteless during use. The calorific value is equal to or higher than that of ordinary loose coal. For clean coal, the country has already issued corresponding quality standards. “Peng Yingdeng said.
Compared with clean coal, people who have used honeycomb coal are deeply touched-ordinary honeycomb coal emits black smoke during the burning process, emits a scent, and also smokes walls and ceilings.
According to reports, Tangshan City began to promote clean coal in 2014 and stipulated the quality standards of clean briquettes: the sulfur content is below 0.6%, the ash content is below 25%, the calorific value is above 5250 kcal, and the thermal stability and waterproof performance are good. A variety of auxiliary materials are required to be non-toxic, harmless, and odorless, and must not cause secondary pollution.
Relevant content of the compulsory national standard “Commercial Coal Quality Civil Briquettes” (GB 34170-2017) issued in 2018 shows that the standard divides civil briquettes into honeycomb coal and other briquettes. Sulfur, volatile content, phosphorus content, chlorine content, arsenic content, mercury content, fluorine content, etc. are all clearly defined.
Hao Fangzhou, director of the Energy Saving Furnace Professional Committee of the China Rural Energy Industry Association, said that the relevant poisoning incidents in Hebei Province require specific issues and specific analysis. The country has corresponding quality standards for clean coal. At present, every batch of clean coal that has been shipped has been tested. single. And even if the quality of coal itself does not meet the standards, it mainly affects the emissions of ash, sulfur, and volatiles, and has little impact on safety.
Carbon monoxide poisoning incidents related to stoves and usage habits
For clean coal, each locality has its own entry requirements, and supervision and management are performed in accordance with relevant national standards.
Luoyang City Market Supervision and Administration Bureau of Henan Province also issued the “Announcement on the Quality Supervision and Inspection of Clean Coal Products”. In the third quarter of 2019, the city’s clean coal products production enterprises will be subject to city supervision and inspection. A total of 46 batches of 16 production enterprises will be selected. The clean coal products of the second grade are all “passed” and the overall qualified rate is 100%.
According to the “Sampling Inspection Results of Clean Briquette Quality in 2019” released by Xinglong County Market Supervision and Administration Bureau, as of November 30, 2019, Xinglong County Market Supervision and Administration Bureau delivered the three briquette distribution companies in the county to this county this year. The coal briquettes of 20 townships were completely covered, and a total of 33 batches were sampled for inspection. All of them passed the inspection by the inspection agency.
“Clean coal has fewer cleaning problems than ordinary loose coal, and it is not necessarily related to the occurrence of carbon monoxide poisoning. The production of carbon monoxide is directly related to the combustion status of coal, and its emissions will increase in the case of insufficient combustion. Coal-like coal and natural gas are the same. Therefore, this is not only a problem of clean coal. “Peng Yingdeng said,” Compared to ordinary loose coal, clean coal has a higher ignition point, and also produces carbon monoxide when it is not fully burned. The occurrence of a carbon monoxide poisoning negates clean coal.
Hao Fangzhou explained in detail that in the past, the burning of bituminous coal in rural areas was generally an anti-burning stove, while the clean coal-burning was generally a forward burning stove. To change coal, you need to change the stove, and the two are matched. “After the carbon monoxide poisoning incident, we sent experts to the site of Xinglong and found that the problem lies in the process of adapting the coal to the furnace. Once improper use, such as the insufficient diameter of the chimney and improper sealing, it is easy to cause carbon monoxide poisoning.”
Install an alarm and complete the shortboard for safety measures
In the promotion process of clean coal, how to further improve and ensure the safety of use?
Hao Fangzhou emphasized that in the promotion process of clean coal, local government’s publicity and training to the masses is very important.
Tangshan Agriculture and Rural Bureau released “Precautions on the use of clean coal and supporting stoves” on its website on November 26, clearly stating that although clean coal does not have obvious smoke during combustion, it also produces carbon monoxide when it is not fully burned. , Improper prevention can easily cause poisoning. It also proposed nearly 20 specific measures on “how to use clean coal”, “use tips”, “prevention of gas poisoning”, “precautions”, and “rescue measures for gas poisoning”.
To achieve clean heating, the stoves used are also important. Hao Fangzhou said that after the stove is adapted, it must be ensured that the stove and the flame are sealed and there is no leakage of smoke. In addition, make sure that the stove is not installed in the bedroom, especially when the season seat is very wet, and the flue gas is not easy to drain out, so it is easy to inject.
Peng Yingdeng said that during the combustion process, it is necessary to maintain good ventilation, and it is best to use facilities such as exhaust fans to actively vent the gas outdoors.
In addition, Hao Fangzhou pointed out that the installation of carbon monoxide alarms indoors is a necessary safety measure to effectively prevent poisoning incidents, and some local governments have issued them as a package to the people. However, in practice, some people use the alarm as a decoration and do not install it even if it is sent.
According to a briefing issued by the Xinglong County Government, the alarm was issued in Xinglong County to ensure the safety of the villagers, and it was not required to be issued. At that time, the alarm was not installed at the deceased’s home. “Precautions on the use of clean coal and supporting stoves” in “Prevention of gas poisoning” is also “It is recommended to purchase a carbon monoxide alarm and place it in the bedroom.”
“While the government is intensifying its propaganda efforts, it is necessary to send someone to supervise and inspect to ensure the use of stoves and carbon monoxide alarms. For stove enterprises, they must ensure that they are in place and must not be installed in the bedroom, especially with The stove combined with fire and flame must first pay attention to whether it is anti-smoke before ignition. Hao Fangzhou said, “In addition, it should also inform the correct use and precautions, and regular inspection of the old stove.”